Original research article


Clinicoradiological Spectrum of L~2~Hydroxy Glutaric Aciduria Typical and Atypical Findings in an Indian Cohort

Departments of Neurological Sciences and Radiodiagnosis, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, 
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DOI: 10.25259/JCIS-9-3

ABSTRACT


Context: Neurometabolic disorders form an important group of potentially treatable diseases. It is important to recognize the clinical phenotype and characteristic imaging patterns to make an early diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. L-2-hydroxy glutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare organic aciduria with a consistent and highly characteristic imaging pattern, which clinches the diagnosis in most cases. Aims: The study aims to describe the clinical profile, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns, and outcome in a cohort of children with L2HGA and to assess the clinicoradiological correlation. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study done at the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Neurological Sciences of our institution. Clinical and radiological findings of children diagnosed with L2HGA over an 8-year period (2010–2017) were collected and analyzed. Descriptive statistical analysis of clinical and imaging data was performed. Results: There were six girls and four boys. A total of 14 MRI brain studies in 10 patients with the diagnosis were analyzed. MRI of all patients showed a similar pattern with extensive confluent subcortical white-matter signal changes with symmetrical involvement of dentate nuclei and basal ganglia. In two children who presented with acute decompensation, there was asymmetric cortical involvement and restricted diffusion, which are previously unreported. There was no significant correlation between the radiological pattern with the disease duration, clinical features, or course of the disease. Conclusion: MRI findings in L2HGA are highly consistent and diagnostic, which helps in early diagnosis, particularly in resource-constraint settings, where detailed metabolic workup is not possible. The article also describes novel clinical radiological profile of acute encephalopathic clinical presentation.
Keywords: Dentate nucleus, L‑2‑hydroxy glutaric aciduria, Leukodystrophy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Organic aciduria, Subcortical white matter
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