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PICTORIAL ESSAY
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 38

Shoulder Ultrasonography: Performance and Common Findings


Department of Medical Imaging, Unit of Ultrasound, Rambam Health Care Center and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel

Correspondence Address:
Diana Gaitini
Clinical Assistant Professor, Director, Ultrasound Unit, Senior Radiologist, Department of Medical Imaging, Rambam Medical Center, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Ha'aliya - 8, POB - 9602, Haifa, 31096
Israel
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2156-7514.99146

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Ultrasound (US) of the shoulder is the most commonly requested examination in musculoskeletal US diagnosis. Sports injuries and degenerative and inflammatory processes are the main sources of shoulder pain and functional limitations. Because of its availability, low cost, dynamic examination process, absence of radiation exposure, and ease of patient compliance, US is the preferred mode for shoulder imaging over other, more sophisticated, and expensive methods. Operator dependence is the main disadvantage of US examinations. Use of high range equipment with high resolution transducers, adhering to a strict examination protocol, good knowledge of normal anatomy and pathological processes and an awareness of common pitfalls are essential for the optimal performance and interpretation of shoulder US. This article addresses examination techniques, the normal sonographic appearance of tendons, bursae and joints, and the main pathological conditions found in shoulder ultrasonography.


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